Ontology

Ontology

Level: 1

Lectures: 60

Seminars: 0

Tutorials: 30

ECTS točke: 6

Lecturer: asist. dr. Zabel Blaž, izr. prof. dr. Strahovnik Vojko

Content

The lasting origin of and need for philosophy – thaumazein (wonder, astonishment), which first makes possible the historically detectable beginning of philosophy and science: Plato, Aristotle, Aquinas, Descartes, Kant, Hegel, Heidegger, Hartmann, Bloch and others.
Relationship between man and nature, pantheism and developed sense for theory. Dialectics and ontology (Plato), first philosophy and ontology (Aristotle).
Fundamental philosophical question: the relation of being and thinking.
Basic difference between ontology and metaphysics; theory of entities as the twofold truth of beings in general and of the highest being. Ontology in relation to other philosophical disciplines.
Ontology as a philosophical discipline which aims at determining entities in their identity; the identity of entities in view of actuality (energeia) and possibility (dynamis).
Being. The question of “absolute nothingness” as the logically negative starting point. What is an entity or essence or being. The category of being understood cosmologically (ontologically, existentially) in the meaning of existence, presence, permanence. Being understood gnoseologically (the copulative “is”) in the sense of positive comprehension of other categories. The manner of articulation of being – by analogy – as the unity of the manifold (henology). Being as a non-generic concept. Being and non-being. Time and space. Self-consciousness and being. Ontological presuppositions for the comprehension of the ideal and material essence. Ancient Greek theory (ousiology) of two different essences and the later theory of two substances.
Essence. The aporia of “that-is” and “what-is” and “how-is”. Relations: being-essence, essence-appearance, cause-effect, identity-difference, substance-accidence, necessity-coincidence etc.
Essence and processuality. Thing-process-substance-essence.
Concept. The concept as the means for understanding being. Categories and categorical determination and articulation of entities. Explication of concepts in the field of philosophy and the humanities rather than definition (typical of mathematics and the acutely quantitatively oriented mathematization of knowledge).
The theory of the multilayeredness of being.